Elizabeth I

How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) change England?

The defeat and destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588 is seen by many as the high point of Elizabeth I’s of England’s reign. If the Armada had been successful, it could have changed the course of English and world… Read More ›

How Did Spy Services Develop in England?

Spying has existed since early historical societies in the Middle East, China, and southeast Europe. However, spy services are generally a later development, where groups of government individuals and ultimately agencies within government became responsible for external and internal spying…. Read More ›