Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) was one of the greatest generals of all time, and his conquests and brief reign changed the history of the world. Once the great Macedonian had dreamt of a universal Empire that encompassed the known world. However, the realm that he created did was short lived and quickly fragmented.
Within a few years of his death, Macedonian generals had divided his territories into various Hellenistic states. Several factors caused the sudden collapse of the Empire that Alexander built. These include the early and the somewhat unexpected death of the great king, absence of a capable successor, rebellious generals, and the size of the territories Alexander had invaded. Instead of creating a vast empire, Alexander’s dream collapsed into numerous warring kingdoms.
Alexander the Great became king of Macedonia after the death of his father, Phillip II. He had inherited a powerful kingdom and an overflowing treasury, but above all, he took control of the Macedonian army which often regarded by scholars as one best fighting forces in the history of warfare. After putting down a rebellion in Greece and securing Macedonia’s frontiers, he launched an invasion of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, which spanned much of Western Asia. He claimed that he was waging a war of revenge in retaliation for the two previous Persian invasions of Greece.
Alexander defeated the Persians at the River Granicus (332 BC), and he swiftly conquered all of Asia Minor (Turkey). The Great Persona King Darius II assembled a large army and confronted Alexander at the River Issus (332BC). The Macedonian was once again victorious, and he went on to capture Egypt. The Achaemenid monarch offered to cede to the son of Phillip II, the western portion of his Empire if he stopped his aggression. Alexander rejected this and invaded the heartland of the Persian state.
Categories: Ancient History